Just answering as the comments suggested,
The APK File is placed inside the data partition.
This is different from Windows as you mentioned.
Windows uses a different protection for System Software called UAC (User Access Control) whereas Android uses a separated Partition on the HDD ( SSD ) called the System Partition.
All Stock Software is stored under
system/app/*app name*/app name.apk
system/priv-app/*app name*/app name.apk
Additional Software from OEM's is usually stored under
However since the new partitions in Android 7.0+ i believe that Vendor is now designated its own partition, making the app directory
Some Vendors put APK's into the system tp be automata installed also under "custom" partition or root folder
Furthermore, applications can be built by binaries under
If you're the Administrator of your PC, you can hypothetically destroy the systems integrity on Windows - however due to any changes being placed in /data partition on Android, you can not delete system software or destroy the system integrity without root access.
The data partition & cache partition hold every single modification made to the device - this means a "Factory Reset" just Erases the Data & Cache partitions on Android - VS windows reinstalling the entire system from a separate backup partition.